A Markov chain is a random probabilistic process dictating transitions
between "states". The chain is viewed as a collection of discrete time steps, with
the probability of entering a state being determined completely by the current state.
As a result, Markov processes are characterized by being memoryless
a property that can be defined formally as follows:

$\Pr(X_{n+1}=x|X_1=x_1, X_2=x_2, \ldots, X_n=x_n) = \Pr(X_{n+1}=x|X_n=x_n).\,$
In other words, system state $X_{n+1}$ depends only on state $X_{n}$.

A common way to fully describe Markov chains is by using a transition matrix (a.k.a. stochastic matrix):